The figures of speech, are very useful to increase and accelerate in a visual way, in the mind of the receiver, the under-standing of concepts inserted in an advertising image or video.

The most effective, well- known and used figures of speech in advertising, are the following:

There is a metaphor when you use a mental image to describe the character or the behavior of somebody with the principle of identification. For instance, “Antony is a fox” means that Antony is very smart, very astute. He has the same characteristics of a fox. Metaphor is a figure of speech that looks like the reality represented.

There is an allegory when you use a mental image, which conventionally and symbolically recalls the characteristics of the subject, to describe a situation, the character or the behavior of somebody . For instance, in George Orwell's Animal Farm, the farm is the allegory for totalitarian politics. The farm in itself doesn’t look like total-itarian politics. Allegory is a figure of speech that doesn’t look like the reality represented, but symbolically recalls it.

There is an oxymoron when you use a mental image formed by two opposite concepts united together to describe a situation, the character or the behavior of somebody. For example, living dead, hot ice , run slowly, virtual reality, random order or original copy.

A concept formed by adding the negation of its opposite (he used to study on holyday, not during the school year) or by combining two opposite words or concepts (I love and I hate this subject).

There is a synecdoche when a part of something is used to refer to the whole, such as in “the boy asked for her hand” which indicates that the boy asked her to marry him and he wanted her in her entirety. The word "wheels" refers to a vehicle, the word "head" refers to cattle. A synecdoche may use an entire whole thing to represent a part of it. For instance, The word "society" is often used to refer to high society or the social elite or the "pentagon" can refer to a few decision-making generals.

There is a hyperbole when bombastic exaggerations are used, through under or overstatements, of a concept. For instance: “I am so hungry I could eat a horse”, or “I’ve told you a million times”.

There is a prosopopeia when a person is used to represent a concept, for example in the Bergman's Seventh Seal, the man dressed in black who is playing a chess game with the Christian knight, is the prosopopeia of Death.

There is a simile when two concepts are compared by their similar characteristics: “He is tall like a giraffe”, “She's as busy as a bee” or "Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you're going to get".

All these figures of speech can be used in a visual way, not only linguistically. For instance, a zombie in a horror movie is a oxymoron, Rapunzel’s hair is a hyperbole, a old woman beside a baby is an antithesis and so forth.

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